The rights to freedom of expression, association and assembly remained severely curtailed. At least one man was executed. Torture and other ill-treatment were widespread and impunity prevailed. The justice system was abused to suppress dissent and trials were routinely unfair. National and religious minorities faced discrimination. Refugees and migrants were subjected to violence and refoulement.
Belarus remained largely isolated internationally owing to the continuing refusal by the EU and USA to recognize Alyaksandr Lukashenka as president. It chiefly aligned its foreign and defence policy with that of Russia, including by contributing to Russia’s war against Ukraine.
GDP plunged and inflation rose after trade with Ukraine halted and new sanctions were imposed by Western governments on Belarusian companies.
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